By Morris Halle and Jean-Roger Vergnaud
An Essay on tension offers a common conception for the characterization of the strain styles of phrases and words encountered within the languages of the global. the center of the speculation is constituted by means of the formal mechanism for characterizing "action at a distance", that is a distinct case of the formalism wanted for the development of constituent structure.Morris Halle is Institute Professor at MIT. Jean-Roger Vergnaud is Professor of Linguistics on the collage of Maryland and Senior Researcher on the Centre nationwide de los angeles Recherche Scientifique and the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche en Informatique Linguistique in France.
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Extra resources for An Essay on Stress
It seems to us more perspicuous if these nodes are also labeled; accordingly, we have parenthesized the Ss that Hayes systematically omits. < previous page page_21 next page > < previous page page_22 next page > Page 22 (44) a. Must nonheads dominate nonbranching rimes? b. Must heads dominate branching rimes? Of the four logically possible constituent types defined by (44), Hayes's system uses only three. In quantity-insensitive constituents there are no restrictions on either heads or nonheads.
Since we are using binary constituents, each odd-numbered sequence will contain a "defective" constituent consisting of a single element. Since our theory requires that each constituent contain a head, it predicts that such "defective" constituents should be stressed. 4 We give in (36) a formal statement of the stress rules of Maranungku and Weri. 3 Cayuvava presents an instance where the principles of constituent construction prevent us from constructing particular "defective" constituents (see discussion following (48)); in such cases we expect to find no stress associated with the substring in question.
This conclusion is, of course, not affected by the fact that no speaker has ever successfully distinguished more than ten or twelve or twenty-seven different degrees of stress. From the fact that there is no upper bound on the degrees of stress, it follows directly that stress cannot be represented by means of diacritic marks of the sort recommended in The Principles of the International Phonetic Association (pp. 17 18), of which different versions are in wide use among writers on phonetic topics.